About Hajj

Among all the acts of worship (furoo-e-deen), Hajj is the only worship, for which a complete surah (Surah Hajj) is revealed in the Holy Quran. Hajj is also mentioned in Surah Ale Imran and Surah Baqarah. Hajj is also the only worship, which, if started, must be completed and can not be left half-done. Quran: "And the Hajj is incumbent upon mankind for the sake of Allah, for those who can afford to undertake journey to it; and whoever denies, then surely Allah is Self-sufficient, independent of the worlds", Surah Ale Imran, (3:97). Hadith 1: If Hajj becomes wajib on a person and it is not performed, then he/she will be raised as a Christian or Jew on the day of judgment. Hadith 2: When a person, on whom Hajj becomes wajib, completes the Hajj properly, his/her sins are forgiven such as if he/she is a newly born person. Hadith 3: When a person completes a Hajj properly, his/her every dua is accepted for four months.

 

How to Perfom Hajj

Certain conditions have to be fulfilled before Hajj becomes a compulsory duty on mankind.

The first condition :- is that of being a Muslim. Non-Muslims are, first and foremost, obliged to become Muslims after which the daily, monthly, yearly and once in a lifetime duties of Islam successively become requirements. Hajj is a religious duty which must be accompanied by the correct belief in order for it to be accepted by Allah.

The second and third conditions :- are those of sanity and puberty. A Muslim has to have reached puberty and be of sound mind for his or her Hajj to become a duty. Divine rewards and punishments are given as a result of human choice between good and evil. Since a child or an insane person lack the ability to distinguish between good and evil, no religious duties are required of them. This principle of non-obligation is based on the following Hadith in which the Prophet (was reported to have said: "The pen is raised from (the book of deeds) of three: the sleeper until he awakes, the child until he becomes a young man, and the insane until he regains his sanity."

However, those who help such individuals perform Hajj are rewarded for their efforts. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) was asked by a woman about her child making Hajj, he replied that the child could, but the reward would be given to her. Hence the insane individual who made Hajj while in a state of insanity is still required to make Hajj if he regains his sanity. Likewise, children who make Hajj are required to do so again when they grow up. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Any child who makes Hajj then reaches puberty must make another Hajj."

The fourth condition :- is that of ability based on the following Quranic verse:

And, pilgrimage to the House is duty on mankind to Allah for those who can find a way there.
[Noble Quran 3:97]

Similar statements of the Prophet (peace be upon him) define ability as being sufficient provisions and transportation. Hence, a Muslim has to be economically able to make the trip. If he has to borrow the money to make the journey, Hajj is not compulsory on him. In the case when one's family is left in debt or with insufficient funds, it is recommended that such an individual stay home until he is financially able. Muslims with physical disabilities are also not obliged to make Hajj unless they have the economic ability to pay others to carry them. Therefore, only those who are economically and physically able to perform the rigorous rites of Hajj are obliged to do so.

The fifth condition :- is that of a Mahram, concerns women only and could be included under the condition of ability. Since the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade women from traveling for a distance requiring more than twenty-four hours unaccompanied by a male relative whom she can not marry (Mahram),women are not obliged to make Hajj unless they have a Mahram to accompany them. Thus, a woman without a Mahram is recommended not to try to make Hajj. However, if the woman has the means and the Mahram, she is obliged to do so. Hazrat Ayesha (radi allahu taala anha) asked the Prophet (peace be upon him): "O, Messenger of Allah, are women obliged to make Jihad (holy war)?" he replied, "They must make Jihad in which there is no fighting - Hajj and ‘Umrah."

 

Different Types Of Hajj :-

1. Tamattu (Most Recommended)

2. Qiran

3. Ifrad

How to Perform Tamattu

(Here I am, O God, at Thy command. Here I am! Thou art without associates, Thine are praise and grace and dominion. Thou art without associates, here I am!)

Of the three types of Hajj, we outline the procedure for Hajj At-Tamattu', for it is the most recommended. In this type, one is to perform Umrah during the Hajj months (i.e., Shawwal, Thul Qa'dah and the first thirteen nights of Thul Hijjah) and to perform the Hajj in the same year with a sacrifice slaughtered in Mina on one of the days of Eid al-Adhha. One may remove his Ihram garments and resume his normal activities between Umrah and Hajj. But one makes the Tawaf and the Sa'i twice, the first time for Umrah and the second time for Hajj. This booklet is designed to be used as a handy reference, but it cannot be a substitute for thoroughly studying Hajj and sincerely preparing oneself for this great Ibadah. Please refer to the map in this booklet to follow the sequence of the rites. Allah is the giver of success. May His blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad and all of his family and companions.

“The first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Mecca, a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples; Wherein are plain memorials of God's guidance; the place where Ibrahim (Peace be upon him) stood up to pray, and whosoever entereth it is safe. And Pilgrimage to the House is a duty unto God for mankind, for him who can find a way thither. As for him who disbelieveth, let him know that lo! God is Independent of all creatures.' [3:96-97]

ONE - IHRAM

Ihram is the intention of the person willing to perform all rites of Umrah, Hajj or both when he arrives at the Miqat. Each direction coming into Makkah has its own Miqat. It is recommended that one makes Ghusl, wear perfumes if he chooses on his body, but not the garments, and puts on a two piece garment with no headgear. The garments should be of seamless pieces of cloth. One piece to cover the upper part of the body, and another to cover the lower part. For a woman Ihram is similar except that she should not use perfumes at all and her dress should cover the whole body decently, leaving the hands and the face uncovered. Then one should utter intention according to the type of Hajj. For Tamatt'u one may say, "Labbayka Allahumma Umrah" which means "O Allah I answered Your call to perform Umrah." It is recommended to repeat the Hajj supplication, called Talbiyah, as frequently as possible from the time of Ihram till the time of the first stoning of Jamrat al-Aqabah in Mina (10th of Thul Hijjah). Men are recommended to utter the Talbiyah aloud while women are to say it quietly

TWO – UMRAH

Tawaf: Upon arrival to Makkah, make Tawaf around the Ka'bah. Circle the Ka'bah seven times in the counterclock­wise direction, starting from the black stone with Takbeer and ending each circle at the Black Stone with Takbeer. The Ka'bah will be to your left. Get to Maqam Ibrahim (Ibrahim's Station) as close as possible and make two rak'at. Be sure to face the Ka'bah while praying.

Sa'i: Next make Sa'i between Safa and Marwah. Start by ascending the Safa hill. Facing the Ka'bah praise Allah, raise his hands and make Takbeer three times, then you may supplicate to Allah whatever you want. Descend and head towards the Marwah. Increase your pace between the clearly marked green posts (called ar-Ram]), but should walk at a normal pace before and after them. At the Marwah, ascend, praise Allah and do as he did at the Safa. This is one complete round and so is the other way from Marwah to Safa. A total of seven rounds are required.

Hair: Once done, end Umrah by shaving your head or trimming your hair (women should cut a finger tip's length from their hair). At this stage, the prohibitions pertaining to the state of Ihram are lifted and you can resume your normal life.

THREE – GOING TO MINA

A Muslim performing Hajjut Tamattu' should intend to go into the state of Ihram, from the place where he is staying in Makkah, on the eighth day of Thul-Hijjah, which is called the Tarwiyah Day, and leave to Mina in the morning. In Mina, perform Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha salah of the eighth day and Fajr salah of the ninth day of Thul Hijjah. Dhuhr, Asr and Isha salah are each shortened to two rak'at only, but are not combined. Remain in Mina until sunrise of the ninth day then leave to Arafat. Make sure you use the time wisely because many people will go instead for long walks trying to see things around in Mina. This is the main reason behind many Muslims getting lost in their way back and ending up wasting most of their time.

FOUR – DEPART TO ARAFAAT

At Arafat, stay until sunset. Make salah of Dhuhr and Asr shortened and combined during the time of Dhuhr to save the rest of the day for remembering and glorifying Allah and for supplication for forgiveness, etc. Make certain that you stay within the boundaries of Arafat, not necessarily standing on the mountain of Arafat. Keep reciting Talbiyah, glorifying Allah the Greatest and repeating supplication. It is also reported that the Prophet sallallaahu alayhe wasallam, used to say the following supplication: "There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, the One without a partner. The dominion and the praise are His and He is powerful over everything." Anas ibn Malik was asked once how he and his friends used to spend their time while walking from Mina to Arafat in the company of Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wasallam. Anas said, 'Some of us used to cry out Talbiyah. others used to glorify Allah the Greatest and the rest used to repeat prayers. Each one of us was free to worship Allah in the way he likes without prejudice or renunciation of his right." (Bukhari)

FIVE – A NIGHT IN MUZDALIFAH

Soon after sunset at Arafat, leave for Muzdalifah quietly and reverently The Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wasallam, said when he noticed people walking hurriedly, "O people! Be quiet, hastening is not a sign of righteousness." (Bukhari) Keep reciting the Talbiyah, glorifying and remembering. In Muzdalifah perform Maghrib and Isha combined, shortening the Isha to two rak'at. Stay overnight in Muzdalifah to perform the salatul Fajr and keep busy supplicating waiting for the brightness of the morning becomes widespread then leave to Mina passing through the sacred Mash'ar valley. Women and weak individuals are allowed to proceed to proceed to Mina at any time after midnight to avoid the crowd. Start collecting pebbles for stoning the Jamaarat.

SIX – RETURN TO MINA (day of Eid)

Stoning Jamrat Al-Aqabah: At Mina, go to Jamrat al-Aqabah to stone it with seven pebbles making Takbeer, "Allahu Akbar" at each throw and calling on Allah to accept your Hajj. The time of stoning Jamrat al-Aqabah starts after sun­rise. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wasallam, threw the pebbles late in the morning and permitted weak people to stone after leaving Muzdalifah after midnight. The size of the pebbles should not be more than that of a chick pea.

Slaughter of Sacrifice: Next, slaughter your sacrifice either personally or, through the appointment of someone who will do it on your behalf.

Shaving the head or trimming the hair: Shave your head or trim some hair. Shaving, however, is preferable. Women can cut a finger tip length of their hair. Finishing these rites ends the first phase of the state of Ihram and lifts its restrictions except for resuming conjugal relationship.

SEVEN - DAYS OF TASHREEQ

10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhul Hijjah

Tawaf al-Ifadhah: Tawaf al-Ifadhah is a fundamental rite of Hajj. Go to Makkah, circle the Ka'bah seven times, perform two rak'at behind Maqam Ibrahim and finish with Sa'i between the Safa and the Marwah. On completion, the state of Ihram is completely lifted. Tawaf al-Ifadhah can be done anytime during the Tashreeq days or delayed until the days spent at Mina are over.

EIGHT – STAYING IN MINA

Spend there the days of Tashreeq in Mina. During each day, and after Dhuhr stone the three stone the Jamarat (the small, the medium and Jamrat al-Aqabah). You may leave Mina to Makkah on the 12th or on the 12th. If you choose the later, leave before sunset.

NINE - FAREWELL TAWAF

The Tawaf of Farewell is the final rite of Hajj. Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Anhu) said, ‘The people were ordered to perform the Tawaf around the Ka’bah as the last thing (to do) before leaving Makkah, except for the menstruating women who were excused.’ (Bukhari)

A REMINDER

 1. Commit all of your time to Ibaadah. Remember the goal of Hajj. Make a lot of Du’aa
2. Stick to righteous deeds. Avoid prohibitions.
3. All of the rites must be done correctly. If you do not know how to perform an act, ask.
4. Never harm any Muslim with words or actions within the Mashaa-ir or elsewhere.
Labbaik Allaahumma labbaik. Labbaika laa shareeka laka labbaika. Innal hamda, wanni’mata laka wal mulk laka. Laa shareeka laka

(Here I am, O God, at Thy command. Here I am! Thou art without associates, Thine are praise and grace and dominion. Thou art without associates, here I am!)

 

How to Perform Qiran

Qiran stands for combining two items i.e. Umrah and Hajj in one Ihram. The two are undertaken together.

One will have to perform Tawaf-al-Qudoom before Waqoof-e-Arafat. It is a Sunnaht as was practiced by the Holy Prophet (PBUH). It is to be kept in mind that Tawaf-al-Qudoom is different from Tawaf-e-Umrah. One can not substitute one with other.

After Tawaf-al-Qudoom the pilgrim has to walk in Saee between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. In case Saee after Tawaf-al-Qudoom is missed due to any reason one will have to perform this after Tawaf-e-Ifadah (Ziyarat).

Hajj-e-Qiran is more suitable for people coming form outside. Those living within the boundaries of Haram are not entitled for Hajj-e-Qiran. In case one does this, he will be sinner and shall have to sacrifice an animal as atonement.

Saee after Tawaf-al-Qudoom is more preferable for one performing Hajj-e-Qiran. In case he puts off the Saee to be after Tawaf-e-Ifada (Ziarat) he should not observe Ramal and Iztiba during Tawaf-e-Qudoom.

One who intended to perform Tawaf-al-Qadoom in Hajj-e-Ifrad followed by Saee, he should observe Ramal and Iztiba in Tawaf. However it is preferable to perform Saee after Tawaf-e-Ifada.

The Niyah of HAJJ QIRAN :-

“O Allah, I intend to perform Hajj. Make the same easy for me and accept the both from me. I have conceived the Niyah for Umrah and Hajj and I have adopted the Ihram sincerely for Allah.”

A pilgrim has to accomplish the following in the performance of Hajj-e-Qiran: -

1. Donning of Ihram for Umrah and Hajj-------- Condition
2. Tawaf-e-Ka’abah with Ramal. Essential (Rukun)
3. Saee ------- Duty (Wajib)
4. Tawaf-e-Qudoom with Ramal (As ordained by Prophet) Sunnah
5. Saee --------- Duty
6. Waqoof (stay) in Arafat on 9th ZilHijj--------- Essential
7. Waqoof (stay) in Muzdalfah--------- Essential
8. Stoning the Jamrah-e-Aqaba (Greater Satan) on 10th ZilHijjah------- Duty
9. Animal slaughter. 10th to 12th ZilHijjah------- Duty
10. Shaving of Head ------- Duty
11. Tawaf-e-Ifadah (or Tawaf-e-Ziarat) Essential
12. Stoning all three Jamrahs (satans) on 11th and on 12th ZilHijjah------- Duty.
13. Tawaf-e-Wida before leaving Mak’kah------- Duty.

 

How to Perfom Ifrad

If one intend to perform only Hajj but not Umrah it is called Al-Ifrad. Those who live within the limits of Haram or within Meeqats, can perform Hajj-e-Ifrad. Even those living in Jeddah can also perform Hajj-e-Ifrad. In this category of Hajj one has to enter into Ihram with the intent of Hajj only but without Umrah. They should not perform Umrah during the Hajj season.

Ever those living outside the Meeqats or limits of Haram (much known as Afaqis) can also perform Hajj in this category. This is known as “Mufrad” wherein animal sacrifice is not obligatory.

The Niyah of HAJJ IFRAD :-

The Niyah or intent for Hajj is: -
“O Allah, I intend to perform Hajj. Make thou the same easy for me and accept it from me. I have conceived the Niyyat for Hajj and I have adopted the Ihram sincerely for Allah.”

A pilgrim has to accomplish the following in Hajj-e-Ifrad:

1. Ihram---- a sacred state. Compulsory.
2. Tawaf Qudoom. It is a Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH).
3. Waqoof or stay at Arafat ----- An essential (Rukun).
4. Waqoof at Muzdalfa----- Duty or obligatory (Wajib).
5. Stoning of Jamrah-e-Al-Aqabah (The greater Satan) Duty or obligatory.
6. Animal Sacrifice or Immolation----- optional.
7. Shaving of Head----- Duty or obligation (Wajib).
8. Tawaf-e-Ziarat (Ifadah)------ Essential / Fundamental (Rukun).
9. Saee—Walk between Al-Safa and Al-Marwah---- Duty (Wajib).
10. Stoning of all three Jamrahs (Pillars)----- Duty (Wajib).
11. Tawaf-al-Wida-----Duty or obligatory (Wajib).

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